Updating the effects of fatty acids on skeletal muscle

Subjects also had to be free of any opportunistic infections, have no active injection drug use, and not have taken any n−3 fatty acid supplements for ≥3 mo before the study started.

These meals were formulated for the daily intake to be lower in fat (≈25% of energy from total fat), be lower in saturated fat (≈7% of energy), have a saturated:monounsaturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1, provide a dietary intake of n−3 fatty acids of 3 g/d, provide a dietary fiber level of ≥40 g/d, and to have a reduced glycemic load, achieved by reducing the use of simple sugars and carbohydrate foods low in fiber.

In a review by Harris (7) of 36 well-controlled crossover studies in humans with elevated serum triglycerides, but without HIV infection, supplementation with n−3 fatty acids at 1.5–7.0 g/d resulted in an average decrease in serum triglycerides of 25–30%.

Four studies have reported that supplementation with n−3 fatty acids can also be effective in lowering serum triglycerides in subjects with HIV infection (8–11).

In addition, each day, subjects might have consumed 2–4 slices of high-fiber bread (5 g fiber/slice), 1 cup brown rice (195 g), 1 cup barley (157 g), 1 cup all-bean salad (185 g), and 2–4 Tbsp bean dip (28–56 g).

The serving sizes of vegetables (all high in fiber) were increased.

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