Rus v dochat 18
Ludox-SM CS is a highly stable dispersion of 7-nm size Si O, which presents the gel time curves for the experiments described later in this paper.
The viscosity of the diluted CS remains low until just before gelation begins; this allows the grout to be injected for most of the induction period.
The grout advancement was monitored in real time using electrical conductivity cells embedded in the specimens.
Injection rates ranging from 65 to 9000 ml/min/well were used to investigate the optimal rate of grout delivery.
In the past fifteen years, numerous researchers have reported on significant improvements in the deformation resistance of loose sands treated with CS in percentages from 2% by weight to 20% by weight (e.g., Kabashima and Towhata, 2000; Towhata and Kabashima, 2001 ; Gallagher and Mitchell, 2002).
Loose sand treated with CS typically behaves similarly to dense sand and shows significant damping and cyclic mobility upon continued loading.
In this study, a pilot-scale facility (243 cm by 366 cm in plan×122 cm deep) was used to inject a dilute colloidal silica stabilizer into liquefiable sand specimens.When the program began in 1938, George Dochat, a teacher in the physical education department, was appointed as the first head coach.He would remain there until his retirement in 1970.In most cases, adjusting the p H is cumbersome; therefore, the gelling time can usually be adjusted by only adding salt.In this study, Ludox-SM was selected from among the several types of CS available.
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In addition, we used UTCHEM, a finite difference numerical simulator that can account for various densities and viscosities, to model the results of experiments and to predict the optimal injection rates for adequate stabilizer delivery.