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The Jewish Sabbath was a type or symbol of the Christian Sabbath—the day that Christ rose from the dead.So, if all Christians calculate Easter the same way, and no Christians calculate it with reference to the date of Passover, why do Western Christians and Eastern Christians usually (though not always) celebrate Easter on different dates?So the Council of Nicaea's prohibition on celebrating Easter "with the Jews" has a deep theological meaning.To calculate the date of Easter with respect to the modern Jewish celebration of Passover would imply that the continued celebration of the Passover of the Jews, which was only ever meant to be a type and symbol of the Passover of Christ, has meaning for us as Christians. For Christians, the Passover of the Jews has found its completion in the Passover of Christ, and, like "all former rites" it must "surrender to the Lord's New Testament."It's the same reason why Christians celebrate the Sabbath on Sunday, rather than retaining the Jewish Sabbath (Saturday).Easter can be calculated without any reference to the Jewish calculation of Passover, and the Council of Nicaea decreed that it should be done so.Second, to rely on the calculation of Passover when calculating Easter gives control over a Christian celebration to non-Christians.The meaning of his sacrifice he himself had anticipated during the Last Supper, substituting himself—under the signs of bread and wine—for the ritual food of the Hebrew Passover meal.
For calculation purposes, the Council of Nicaea declared that the full moon is always set at the 14th day of the lunar month.(The lunar month begins with the new moon.) This is called the ecclesiastical full moon; the astronomical full moon may fall a day or so before or after the ecclesiastical full moon. As the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America rightly states in "The Date of Pascha": What does it mean to say that Easter is related to Passover in an "historical and theological way"?Notice what isn't mentioned at all in the formula set down at the Council of Nicaea? In the year of His Death, Christ celebrated the Last Supper on the first day of Passover.In his passion and death, Jesus reveals himself as the Lamb of God, “sacrificed” on the Cross, to take away the sins of the world.He was killed at the very hour when it was customary to sacrifice the lambs in the Temple of Jerusalem.