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Each solid circle represents one entrance orientation. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Reneerkens, J., T.

The dashed line designates the mean entrance orientation angle of 345° for all nests (n = 10; Hartman and Oring 2003).

Artificial nests of eastern, western, and southern orientations exhibited little to no shade during this time.

A northern nest orientation ensures maximal shading by the grass tuft to the south, may protect nests from cool evening winds, and provides increased daytime ventilation of the nest through exposure to prevailing winds.

On small areas, regular spacings help to avoid too close tunneling and concomitant bank collapse. This indicates that the even the earliest birds built nests to protect their eggs and young (From: Chiappe 2009). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Scharf, W. Orientation and microclimate of Horned Lark nests -- Across their range, Horned Larks typically construct nests adjacent to & north of objects such as a tuft of grass or a rock. In addition, shade may also help conceal nests from predators. The position of vegetation (curved black bars) around Horned Lark nests relative to the direction of prevailing winds. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why?

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