Delitzsch might safely point out the coincidences between Babylonian cul- ture and the religion of the Old Testament, but he would have done better to leave it to his audience to draw their own con- clusions. In his famous lecture on Babel and Bible, now circulated in more than 40,000 copies, which my distinguished friend and co-editor of our Assyriological Library, Professor Friedrich Delitzsch, of Berlin, delivered before the German Emperor, he rightly emphasizes the fact that, if the results of Biblical archaeology become popularized, the influence will be far more incisive than the efl Tect of any discoveries in physics, chemistry, or medicine.' We are progressive in matters pertaining to the forces of nature, but the science of the manifestations of mind, or whatever you term those cerebral functions, the science of religion, which i7i some respects is a branch of neurology, receives comparatively little attention, and the consequences are disastrous. In addition to the effect on their speech of the corrujit Arabic spoken by the peoples they had conquered, another powerful factor was at work.
I believe myself that it is wiser in some cases to say 2 -)- 2 = 5 — 1, and I am convinced that it is better if a Biblical scholar confines himself to a statement of the facts, leaving it to the faith and the intellect of his readers or hearers to draw their own conclusions. I occasionally ask my advanced students whether there is any difierence between Catholic and Protestant mathematics, or between Christian and Jewish physics, or between Episcopal and Presbyterian chemistry ; and then I question them whether there is any divergence between Catholic and Protestant exegesis. The rapid change, from poverty and the simple life of the desert to great wealth and a life of luxury in great cities, brought with it new conditions and new ideas for which the speech of desert nomads contained no proper equivalent. The Book of Job, with a New Commentary, by Benjamin Szold : No.
This view of inspiration, which is very diflfereut from the theological doctrine of verbal inspiration of the June, 1903.] UNIVERSITY CIRCULARS. in in the Hebrew Literary Review, Ner Ha'Maarabi ('D")J70r T "IJ) vol. We often find men who immediately adopt the latest scientific appliances ; they use Marconigrams, phototherapeutic Finsen tubes in combination with X-rays, collargol inunctions, etc., but with regard to the Bible they are still medieval, if not antedilu- 52 JOHNS HOPKINS [No. However, the subject of the present paper is not science and religion, but archaeology and mineralogy. With the dismemberment of the Arabic Moham- medan Empire, which began to take place as early as the 2d century after Mohammed, and the consequent independence of its many Asiatic and African provinces, these linguistic changes became decidedly more distinct, so that the Arabic spoken in the African provinces differed greatly from that spoken in Asia, in Spain, in Sicily, or in Malta.
49 Sacred Scriptures, will hardly be contested by the most advanced Biblical scholars. It is a well known fact that a flood of light has been shed on Biblical chronology by the cuneiform chronological tablets for which we have a fixed point in the eclipse observed at Nineveh on June 15th, 763, b. It is very difl Bcult to define the boundaries of Arabic as a spoken language. looked upon indiscriminately as corruptions and barbarisms, and were noticed by schools only in order that they might be avoided. [Abstract of a paper read at the meeting of the American Oriental Society, Baltimore, April, 1903]. Professor Morris Jastrow, of Philadelphia, discussed in two interesting articles, published in the Journal of the Amerietm Oriental Society,' the principal mourning customs of the ancient Hebrews.
So the four rivers of Paradise, according to the primitive Babylonian conception, are still extant, although they no longer empty separately into the Persian Gulf, as was the case during the Babylonian period. In the new edition this passage reads : 7«i e^' da Wunder zu nehmen, dass ein Gleiches auch in Palastina gesohah in alterer wie jungerer Zeit, und dass JUNE, 1903] UNIVERSITY CIBCULARS. The great Philadelphian who founded the American Philosophical Society and the University of Penn- sylvania was not only a physicist, but also a philosopher and a man of letters. The spirantic sounds of the conson- ants 3 and c, however, while correctly pronounced by the W. g., marge ' prairies,' Hsbe ' grasses, vegetables,' and idrt'td ' tent,' instead of inarg M, Hsvi, and idn'thd. Syrians spirate a consonant which has the hard sound in the Eastern dialect ; e. A treatise on Syriac gramnmr by Mar Elias of Sobbd (t 1049) ed. Ancient Arabic poetry is marked throughout by a certain tendency to artiticiality and mannerism, and in order to obtain an idea of the ordinary language of the Ancient Bedouins we must have recourse to the prose of the ancient traditions (Hadiths), the genuine accounts of the deeds of the Prophet and of his companions, and the stories concerning the liattles and adventures of the Bedouins in the heathen period and in the earlier days of Islam. In the dialect of Himyar the article al was pronounced as am, and in the Iladitlis it is related that the Prophet himself, in addressing one day the tribe of Himyar, used the same peculiarity, in order to be understood by them.
Now when the paragraph describing the location of Paradise was inserted in the second chapter of Genesis at the time of the Babylonian captivity, the Garden of Eden was transferred from the mouth of the rivers to the head of the rivers, because, according to the ideas of the Hebrews at the time of the Exile, God dwelt in the North. 2, 19 ffi verhdlt sich zu dem tvas das Gilgamesepos von Eabanis Umgang mit den Thieren und von. 51 eine Reihe biblischer Erz'dhlungen jetzt auf einmal in Hirer unprimgliclieii Gestalt aus der Nacht der bahylonisehen Schatzhilgel ans Licht treiea f See also Alfred Jeremias' pamphlet (cited above, at the end of note 24) p. Some scientific men in this country do not believe archaeology to be scientific research which, properly interpreted, means noth- ing but systematic search for truth in any branch of knowledge. Syrians as v and / resjiectively, have both become 1 in the pronunciation of the E. By the latter, for exanijile, the words N-131 n3n dijo (' in the name of the Father and of the Son 'j are pronounced, not biem aim uavrd, but bseni and unurd. From the writ- ings of Bar-Hebraeus of the 13th century, and from Si'uiini, who lived a little earlier, we know that, in their times, both E. Syrians very carefully observed the distinction between the spirantic and mute sound of the 3 as well as of the other n B3ij3 letters. Syrians sometimes pro- nounce a short a where the E. g., pahrd ' prostitute,' 'arund ' ark,' and zagund ' battle,' instead of pd Jird, 'drd)id, and zdghmd. g., Sth Uhdid ' sixth,' qdiimtha ' arrow,' instead of MUdid, qdiemtd, etc. There are finally, many differences of vocalization in the two dialects which can only be learned by observation or by reference to the dictionaries. Turas mamld sui-iaid oder syrishe Grammatik des Mar Elias von Tirhan (f 1049) herausgegeben uml ubersetzt von Fr. The formation of this dialedus poetica, in which only poetical compositions were written, and in which purer forms were used and colloquial expressions were avoided, marks a noble effort and a splendid achievement on the part of the ante-Islamic Arabs, and is mainly due to their frequent auniial gatherings in certain piublic places or markets, of which the fair of 'Ukad was the most famous. In the dialect of Rabi'a the Kaf of the pronominal and verbal suffix of the second person fem. Remarks Introductory to a Comparative Study on the Deluge Tablets, with special reference to Dr.
e., the ' Bitter Stream ' or 'Salt Water River.' At present these four rivers do not empty into the Persian Gulf, but we know that the Persian Gulf extended much farther north during the Babylonian period. (27) In the first edition of his first lecture on Babel and Bible (p. I have taken mineralogy as my credentials to this distinguished assembly ; or, if you prefer, the addition of mineralogy to archseology in the title of my paper represents the scientific sugar-coating of the archaeological pill. So also the n in the active participle of all verbs medim infirmce is i^rouounced as '. j6r (iiap N) ' I bury,' instead of niqpatli, puqdand and 'eqh'yr. rlqdnd ' exterminator ' and mmiqdnd ' scorner,' instead of raiqdnd and mmaiqdnd. In the Western dialect, words beginning with a gut- tural have the initial syllable pointed with a short i, while in the Eastern dialect no vowel sign is employed. Syrians, for example, write and pronounce hilaklitd 'journey' 'iraqtd ' flight,' 'iqarvd ' scorpion,' 'ikhal ' he ate,' instead of hlakhtd, 'raqtd, 'qarvd, and 'khal. In many words, consonants pronounced with Rukdhd by the E. This period, which embraces the 6th and 7th centuries of our Era, marks the real golden age of Arabic poetry ; all subsequent poetical productions are imitations of these admirable ante- Islamic models.
He mentions his own grandfather, whom he calls AVilliam the Great; also Charlemagne and the friend of Abraham, Ham- murabi ; philosophers like Kant ; great poets like Homer, Shakespeare, Goethe. A man may read the Bible without being a Biblical specialist, just as a man may be his own doctor or his own lawyer; but it has been observed that a man who is his own lawyer generally has a fool for his client.' The adherence to the Sunday School type of Biblical studies is just as deplorable as the preference for patent medicines. No one would like to be treated on the basis of a medical book published in 1611, but for our spiritual food a translation of the Bible made at the time of King James is considered unsurpassable, and the Catholic Church still adheres to the Vulgate Version made more than 1500 years ago, as though there had been no progress in Biblical research since the days of St. I know some distinguished surgeons who do not hesitate to extirpate a suspicious neoplasm or a diseased organ ; but if a Biblical specialist comes to the conclusion that a passage of the Scriptures is an excrescence, they look upon his iconoclastic attempt with holy horror. The change took place independently, to a greater or less extent, in all the provinces under the Arab dominion. Delitzsch's Ex Oriente Lux, written about five years ago for the German Orient Society, did not stir up a sensation, although he pointed out there just as plainly' that the Old Testament contained a great deal derived from Babylonian sources. Of course, if Delitzsch wins an Assyriological race or battle, it would be absurd to say that the race does not belong to the swift, nor the battle to the strong : in the field of Assyriology there is no one swifter and stronger than Delitzsch, whom I styled 24 years ago, in the dedication of my Suraerian Family Laws,* the first connoisseur of the monuments of Sumero- Assyrian Lit- erature ; but the views expressed by Delitzsch in his two lectures on Babel and Bible ^'^ do not diflfer materially from the opinions entertained by competent Biblical scholars during the past 25 ears. Clemens David, Syrian Archbishop of Damascus,'" and Mgr. The South Arabian inscriptions, which are mucli more numerous, exhibit four principal dialects : Minaean, Sabaean, Hadraniautie, and Catabaniau. The idea that a great deal in the Bible is derived from Babylonian sources is not novel. Jeremias Maqdasi, Chaldean Arch- bishop of Se'ert in northern Mesopotamia," as well as upon my own observations during my residence at Mosul and other places several years ago. Although the two latter are at present represented by very few texts, their dialectic pecu- liarities are quite clearly marked, and it can be asserted that both the Ilatlramautic and Catabanian are more closely related to the Minaean dialect than to the Sabaean. xix, It is hardly possible to contest Haupt's opinion that " the comparative study of the ante-Islamic religion of the Arabs undoubtedly throws much light on certain forms of ancient Israclitish worsliip ; but if we want to trace the origin of the later Jewish ceremonial of the Priestly Code, we must look for it in the cuneiform ritual texts of the Assyro-Babylonians." In a note to this statement" I added that there was no direct reference to Jewish hieroscoi)y in the Old Testament, but I believed that certain features of the inspection of the intestines of slaughtered animals, which is still practiced by orthodox Jews, to determine whether the meat is fit ("l Ji*D) or unfit (n31D), to eat, were influenced by the anatomical knowledge and the symptomatological experience gained by the Babylonian haruspices. Thomas Youn;_% who discovered the law of the interference of light and suggested the theory of c^lor sensation afterwards developed by Helmholtz, shares with Cluuiipollion the honor of the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, which Niebuhr called one of the greatest achievements of the xix. Fox Talbot was not only one of the inventors of plii)tngraj)hy but also one of the pioneers of cuneiform research. 2626-28 ; the Lisbon edition of Isaiah (1492) ; nor in any of the early editions cited above. 54, 17, Bffir points iiif'j'^ai, but the Dagesh is not found in the Codex Petropol.; Orient. This is conclusively shown by comparison with the Aramaic portions of Daniel aixd Ezra, with the Aramaic words incidentally occurring in the New Testament, with the language of the Targums and the Talmud, with the many June, 1903.] UNIVERSITY CIRCULARS. In the dialect of the tribe of Mazin Bti and Mini were constantly interchanged. In the same year I read a paper on the Sanitary Basis of the Mosaic Ritual at one of the general meetings of the Twelfth International Congress of Orientalists held at Rome in October, 1899.'' In another paper'* presented to the Congress I pointed out that the Babylonian winged genii were the prototypes of the angels to whose forms we are accustomed. 694^ Cheyne says in the notes on the translation of Isaiah, in the Polychrome Bible, p. 72: The triumph of Israel's cause is a manifestation of Jhvh's righteousness ; see also Wellhausen's remarks in the translation of the Psalms, in the Polychrome Bible, p. Virchow, the founder of cellular pathology, was deeply interested in anthropology and archaeology ; he assisted Schlicniatin in his excavations of Troy (1879). 83 Syriac louu-words in Arabic, and witli the transliteration of Aramaic words preserved in classical writers. This list of phonetic differences could be greatly enlarged, and many other divergences, both in grammar and in vocabu- lary, can be traced in classical Arabic.
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The Babylonian Cherubim originally symbolized the winds carrying the pollen from the male flowers to the female. Adolf Harnack's article in the J're Amische Jahrbilcher (March, 1903) pp. (23) The rhythm of my translation has been much improved by the kind cooperation of the distinguished co-editor of the Polychrome Bible, Horace Howard Furuess, of Philadelphia. In Europe they speak of the science of anti(piities, the science •This paper will ho pulilished iu full in the Proceedings of the Americia Philosophical Society. It is, therefore, to be regretted that the Western dialect has been and is still to a great extent, exclusively studied in nearly all the occiden- tal universities. II contenant la petite gramniaire en vers de sept syllabes et le traite " de vocibus mquivocis " texte et coinmentaire (Paris, 1872). (6) Histoire la ponctuation ou de la Massore chez les Syriens = Journal Asiatiqiie. The native Arabic philologians ascribe these dialectical differences wholly to foreign influences, especially to the influence of Aramaic ; but this is an error.